Moldinspector.com Online Since 1999
 
Do-It-Yourself Blog for Mold Health &Mold Inspection, Testing, Removal, & Prevention, Plus Air Duct Cleaning & Building Decontamination by EnviroFry for Homes, Workplaces, & Commercial Buildings Nationwide USA, Canada, Europe, Middle East, Asia, Australia/N.Z., South America, and Worldwide!
 
 
Mold Expert Consultant  What Is Mold?  Mold Health  Mold Victim Rights  Mold News Mold Legal Liability Mold Inspection 
 Mold Inspector Directory  Mold Lab Analysis Mold Removal  Mold Products  Air Conditioning Mold  Workplace Mold  
 Mold Prevention  Mold Real Estate Problems  Mold Inspection Clause  Top 10 Mold Mistakes 
10 Steps To Find Hidden Mold 
 
10 Mold Inspection Steps 10 Steps Prevent Mold Legal Problems  Mold Q & A  Vehicle Detoxification  Mold Inspector Training
RENT or buy an ozone generator, mold fogging machine, or EPA-registered fungicides at www.upkeepmasters.com  
 
 
Contact Mold Expert Phillip Fry phil@moldinspector.com  Phone Phillip Toll-Free 1-866-300-1616 or 1-810-639-0523
or cell phone 1-480-310-7970      
Visit the Site Map at the bottom of this page.

Hire mold consultants Phillip Fry and Divine Montero to find air conditioning mold, workplace mold, and mold hidden inside the walls, ceilings, floors, crawl space, attic, and basement of your house, condominium, workplace, or other building. Mold Training  Mold Inspector Directory  Industrial Hygienist Training  Industrial Hygienist Directory Building Mold Inspection

Helpful Environmental Websites
 
Building Mold Inspection | Caribbean Mold InspectionCertified Hygienists DirectoryCertified Mold Inspectors Directory | Condominium Mold Inspection | Environmental ProductsEnvironmental Hygienist Training | Factory Mold Public Building Mold Inspection | Sacramento Mold Inspection | San Diego Home Inspection | San Diego Mold Inspection | Orange County Mold Inspection | San Francisco Mold Inspection | San Jose Mold Inspection | School Mold Inspection | Senior Housing Mold Inspection |Store Mold InspectionToxic Mold Inspection | Toxic Mold Inspector | Warehouse Mold Inspection | Natural Supplements | Dietary Supplements | Male Performance Supplement | Tongkat Ali | Hong Kong Sex Pills | China Mould Testing | Air Conditioning Mold | Mold Test Kits | Ozone Blasting | Ozone Generator | Household Mold Removal | Workplace Mold | Mold Health | Mold Remediation Safety Gear | Factory Mold Inspection  |Government Building Mold InspectionHospital Mold InspectionHotel Mold Inspection | Inspector Del MoldeLos Angeles Mold Inspection | Mold Inspector Training | Mold Inspection | Mold Inspector | Mold Inspector Training | Mold Products and Services |Mold School | Mold TrainingMold Training And Certification | Office Mold Inspection | Home Repair |  Home Renovation | Home Remodeling | Mold Prevention | Kill Bedbugs | Mold Prevention | Indoor Pollution PollutionBusters | Speak English | Talk English | Write English | Learn English | Read English | Flood Mold | Fire Mold | Wind Storm Mold | Tim-Bor Professional | Thailand Flood Mold | Business Mold | Company Mold | Far Infrared Pain Relief | Mold Expert Mold Consultant | Senior Health News | Female Health News | Male Health News | Sexual Health News | Industrial Hygienist Training | Industrial Hygienists Directory |
Visa for USA Immigration |Marriage Matchmaking Service | FREE Mold Advice Hotline |


[Home]
[Up]
[Mold-VA-Hospitals]
[Mold-Wall-Street-Journal]
[Dream-House-Mold]
[Foul-Air]
[LA-Home-Mold]
[Mold-Infestation]
[Mold In News]
[Mold-In-Houses-Causes-Headache]
[Mold-In-The-Los-Angeles-Times]
[More News]
[Stachybotrys-Mold-Wallstreet-Journal]
[Tribe-Seeking-Mold-Solution]
[Mold-Sex-Life]
[Top-10-Moldiest-State]
[Arizona-Mold-News]
[Fungus-Killing-Frogs]
[YWCA-Mold-Infestation]
[Mold-School-Evacuation]
[Condo-Mold-Lawsuit]
[Fungus-Termite-Relationship]
 


Mold Library Combination
Read the 5 mold advice ebooks in the Mold Library Combination, for a combined discount price of only $49.00 [$75.00 if bought separately]. Combo package includes: (a) Do-It-Best-Yourself Mold Prevention, Inspection, Testing, and Remediation, $15; (b) Mold Health Guide, $15; (c) Mold Legal Guide, $15; (d) Mold Home Remedy Recipes, $15; and (e) Mold Monsters, $15.  All helpful ebooks are delivered to your designated email address by email attachments only within 12-24 hours of your order. Order Now!
 
Learn the 25 steps for safe and effective mold remediation.


Solve Your Home Mold Problems for $99 anywhere in the world with the UNLIMITED (60 days) expert email guidance, direction, and assistance of Phillip Fry, Certified Mold Inspector, Certified Environmental Inspector, Certified Mold Remediator, and Certified Environmental Hygienist!

Western USA
Mold Inspector Websites

 Las Vegas Mold Inspector
 Los Angeles Mold Inspector
 Mesa Mold Inspector
 Orange County Mold Inspector
 Phoenix Mold Inspector
 Sacramento Mold Inspector
 San Diego Mold Inspector
 San Francisco Mold Inspector
 San Jose Mold Inspector
 

Source: Stanford University
Date: 2002-02-11
URL: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/02/020211075951.htm

Mating Molds Provide New Insights Into
Speciation And Human Reproduction

[Sexy Mold!!!]

A new study on the sex life of molds is raising startling new questions about gene silencing, speciation and perhaps some facets of human reproduction.

The study, featured in the journal Cell, focuses on the mating habits of Neurospora crassa, commonly called pink bread mold - a fungus that has been a useful genetic model organism for more than half a century. Neurospora became famous when George Beadle and Edward Tatum used it at Stanford in 1941 for the first experiments in biochemical genetics - an achievement that won them the Nobel Prize.

"Fungus is very easy to manipulate," said Patrick K. T. Shiu, a postdoctoral fellow in the Stanford Department of Biological Sciences and lead author of the Cell paper. "It only takes two weeks for a genetic cross to mature, and you can insert or delete any gene you want."

When it comes to sex, molds and humans share at least one fundamental principle: In both species, the parents must donate a copy of their DNA to the offspring in order to successfully reproduce.

In most human cells, DNA resides in 23 pairs of chromosomes. One chromosome is inherited from the father, one from the mother.

Neurospora, on the other hand, contains only seven different chromosomes, and - during most of its life cycle - only one copy of each. During the sexual phase, one set from each parent briefly forms a cell with 14 chromosomes, each chromosome containing a grab bag of genetic information from one parent or the other. The corresponding chromosomes from each parent pair up and then separate to form progeny, which again have only seven chromosomes.

Silence of the genes

This complex cellular process - in which parental chromosomes pair up and split apart to form offspring or sex cells (sperm and eggs) - is called meiosis and occurs in all organisms that reproduce sexually, from people to plants to fungi.

In their recent Cell study, Shiu and his colleagues took a closer look at meiosis in mold and made a surprising discovery: Each cell with 14 chromosomes has some kind of internal mechanism that scans the paired chromosomes before they split apart. The researchers determined that, if one chromosome in a pair carries an extra copy of a gene not found in its partner chromosome, the fungus will turn off all copies of that gene in the cell.

Because the genes are turned off in the early stages of meiosis before the two parental chromosomes separate and still have the chance to check for mismatched (unpaired) genes, Shiu and his co-workers have dubbed the process MSUD - "meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA."

The results of MSUD are devastating. Instead of turning out healthy black spores capable of reproduction, silencing of essential genes by MSUD produces white spores that are dead - or no spores at all.

"In meiosis, normal chromosomes pair with one another perfectly," noted Stanford Research Professor Robert L. Metzenberg, co-author of the Cell study. "We discovered that, when chromosomes pair, there`s a built-in checking system we didn`t expect to find that checks if the pairing is correct. It does not detect tiny differences in the two DNA sequences, but any deviation the size of a gene or larger triggers the checking system."

Three copies distributed between two parents is sure to make trouble, Metzenberg said, because one copy is likely to be unpaired, but four genes are not necessarily bad because they can pair normally and do not trigger the MSUD checking mechanism.

"If there`s a gene missing or appears in one chromosome but not in its mating partner, the cell says, `Something is wrong. There`s something from one of the parents that doesn`t belong there," he added.

The extra gene may be from a virus that jumped into the chromosome or from an insertion sequence - a mobile segment of DNA that can interfere with normal genetic function.

"Organisms are constantly under siege by viruses and insertion sequences," Metzenberg observed. "Most of them are bad. They make you carry something you shouldn`t, or they may disrupt a gene you need. They would like to hitch a ride into the future by jumping into the progeny - the children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren."

With MSUD, organisms can prevent unwanted viral genes and insertion sequences from spreading.

"It`s as if the organism says, `No thanks, I don`t want that. I`m going to activate my cellular machinery to turn off genes that are not paired properly at the 14-chromosome stage," Metzenberg explained.

"It`s a meiotic defense system that defends the fungus against invasion at a time when chromosomes are especially vulnerable to the spread of viruses and insertion sequences," Shiu added.

Humans and speciation

In addition to eliminating deleterious genes in mold, Metzenberg suggested that MSUD could be involved in screening out genetic parasites in other organisms that reproduce sexually - plants, insects and even people. One example is oogenesis in women - a biological process in the ovary that results in the formation of eggs.

"Human oogenesis is, at first glance, a bizarre process," Metzenberg wrote in Cell, noting that, at birth, a girl already will have developed some seven million egg cells that are "frozen" in an early stage of meiosis during which all 23 chromosomes sets are paired. Remarkably, the chromosomes remain in this frozen state until menstruation begins some 12 years later. Of the original seven million cells, only 400 or 500 will be made available for reproduction during a woman`s lifetime.

"We speculate that this is not a random process," Metzenberg observed. "It`s a perfect situation for weeding out extra genes or seeing if there`s a bad match or too many bad matches in the chromosomes. We suspect that there is a system in humans that causes gene silencing, but we don`t know the mechanism yet."

The researchers made another surprising discovery with evolutionary implications. Animals, plants and fungi are divided into species based, in part, on their ability or inability to interbreed. Redwoods and Douglas firs have some physical similarities, but it`s unlikely that they will be able to mate to give hybrids, especially fertile ones. Clearly, they are different species of trees.

Likewise several species of Neurospora - N. crassa, N. sitophila and N. tetrasperma - are normally infertile when crossed in the laboratory. Yet, by including a dominant mutant gene called Sad-1 in the DNA of the three mold species, Shiu and his colleagues were able to produce viable spores through cross-breeding of species that normally are sterile with one another.

The ability of Sad-1 to breach interspecies sexual barriers apparently works by preventing meiotic silencing from occurring, according to Metzenberg.

"To our knowledge, this is the first case where the barrier between interspecies crosses has been observed to break down as a result of mutation in a single gene," Shiu added, "but since gene silencing is universal, it could occur in other kingdoms, including plants and animals."

Commercial interest

The Cell study is the latest in a series of discoveries in gene silencing - one of the most explosive fields in biology in the past decade.

According to Metzenberg, MSUD silences genes by destroying messenger RNA (mRNA) - molecules that carry specific instructions ("transcripts") from DNA telling the cell which proteins to build. In gene silencing, mRNA molecules are destroyed after they are transcribed - a method known as "post-transcriptional gene silencing" (PTGS).

Researchers in a number of industries - including pharmaceuticals and agriculture - are particularly interested in using PTGS to screen for disease resistance, flavor enhancement and other commercially valuable traits by turning off several genes simultaneously.

"MSUD could provide a quick and dirty way of testing how genes function in meiosis," Shiu concluded. "We can silence a gene simply by inserting an extra copy, without interfering with the growth of the fungus before meiosis. We`re still not clear whether extra copies of a gene can trigger meiotic silencing in plants and animals - or other fungi, such as penicillium. That would be interesting for scientists to study in the future."

Other co-authors of the Cell study are Stanford senior research scientist Namboori B. Raju and Professor Denise Zickler of the Institut de Genetique et Microbiologie at the Universite Paris-Sud. The research was supported by grants from the U.S. Public Health Service and the National Science Foundation.

Mold News website.  Read Mold Legal Guide as an in depth introduction to both sides of the key mold legal issues and of the essential claims and defenses in mold lawsuits.

Be trained and certified as a Certified Mold Inspector, Certified Mold Remediator, and/or Certified Environmental Hygienist.  Be trained and certified as a Professional Industrial Hygienist and receive extensive on-the-job training during your industrial hygienist training from mold experts and mold consultants Phillip Fry and Divine Montero. 

Hire mold consultants Phillip Fry and Divine Montero to find air conditioning mold, workplace mold, and mold hidden inside the walls, ceilings, floors, crawl space, attic, and basement of your house, condominium, workplace, or other building. Mold Training  Mold Inspector Directory  Industrial Hygienist Training  Industrial Hygienist Directory Building Mold Inspection

Site Map

Air Conditioning Mold
Antifungal Spray
Antimicrobial Coating
Apartment Mold
Asthma Home Remedies
Asthma and Mold
Attic Mold
Basement Toxic Black Mold
Bathroom Toxic Black Mold
Biblical Mold Inspectors
Bleach Ineffective Mold
Black Mold
Black Mold Picture
Black Mold Remover
Black Mold Symptom
Brain Mold
Black Mold Home
Build Mold-Safe Home
Car/Van/Truck Mold
Carpeting Mold
Ceiling Mold
Certified Mold Inspector
Certified Mold Remediator
Cleaning Mold
Closet Mold
Concrete Floor Mold
Condominium Mold Problem
Construction Mold
Co-Operative Apartment Mold
Crawl Space Mold
Dangerous Molds
Demolition Moldy Home
Do-It-Yourself Mold Book

Eliminate Mold

Employer Mold Liability
Employer Mold Problem
Environmental College
Environmental Detective
Environmental Education
Environmental Training
EPA Mold Recommendations

Find Mold
Fire & Mold


Flooding
Flood & Mold
Flood Prevention Tips
Flood Water Damage Prevention
Floor Mold
Fungicide
Garage Mold
Gutter Mold
Health Effects of Mold
Herbal Remedies
Hidden Mold

High Blood Pressure
Home Builder Mold
Home Construction Mold

Home Mold Detection
Home Mold Removal Remedy
Home Remedy for Killing Mold
Home Selling and Mold
Home Buying and Mold
House Mold
House Mold Inspection
House Mold Removal Remedy
Household Mold
How To Get Rid of Mold
How To Kill Mold

Humidifier Mold Problem
Hurricane & Mold
Hurricane Katrina Mold Problems
Hypertension
Indoor Plant Mold
Insurance Claim Mold
Kill Mold in Home
Killing Mold
Kitchen Mold
Landlord Mold Liability
Lift Tape Mold Sampling
Manufactured Home
Mobile Home Mold Problem
Mold

Mold & Health
Mold & Mildew
Mold & Mildew Removal
Mold Abatement

Mold Advice
Mold Allergy

Mold Allergy Symptom
Mold Analysis
Mold Books
Mold Certification
Mold Cleaner
Mold Cleaning
Mold Cleanup
Mold Consultant
Mold Contractor
Mold Count
Mold Cross-Contamination
Mold Depression
Mold Detection
Mold Doctor
Mold Education
Mold Expert
Mold Health Symptoms
Mold Home Remedy Recipes
Mold Illnesses
Mold in Basement
Mold in Home
Mold in House
Mold in Water Testing
Mold Information

Mold Inspection
Mold Inspector
Mold Investigation
Mold Killer
Mold Law

Mold Legal Liability
Mold Medical Problems
Mold Mitigation
Mold Monsters book
Mold News
Mold Prevention
Mold Prevention Consultant
Mold Problem
Mold Remediation

Mold Remediation Protocol
Mold Remediator
Mold Removal
Mold Remover

Mold Resistant Paint
Mold Resistant Paint Tips
Mold Class
Mold School

Mold Seminar
Mold Specialist
Mold Species
Mold Species Information
Mold Species Identification 
Mold Spore
Mold Symptom
Mold Test
Mold Testing
Mold Test Kits
Mold Training
Mold Treatment
New Home Mold
Office Mold
OSB and Mold
Ozone Blasting
Ozone Generator
Ozone Kills Mold
Pet Health and Mold
Plumbing Leak Mold
Pregnancy & Toxic Black Mold
Real Estate and Mold
Removing Mold
Retail Store Mold
School Mold
Scotch
® Tape Mold Test
Siding Mold
Sinus Infection
Slime Mold
Stop Mold Growth
Symptoms of Black Mold
Symptoms of Toxic Mold
Testing Mold
Tornado & Mold
Toxic Black Mold
Toxic Mold
Toxic Mold Home
Treat Toxic Black Mold
Truck Mold
Tsunami & Mold
Tsunami Deadly Mold
Type of Mold

Typhoon & Mold
Vehicle Mold
Wall Mold
Wallpaper Mold
Window Mold
Workplace Mold

How To Order Mold and Enviro Products by Phone and Email
PHONE ORDER: You can place your order by phoning mold consultant Phillip Fry Toll-Free 1-866-300-1616
or Phillip's cell phone 1-480-310-7970 USA/Canada, 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Saturday.
EMAIL ORDER:  You can also email your order by printing, completing, and emailing the Email Order Form.

Top Ten Mold Mistakes  Mold Inspection Steps  Mold Remediation Steps  Hire Mold Expert  Home Repairs
 Mold TrainingTop 100 Mold Health Problems Real Estate Mold Problems Legal Liability for Mold FREE Mold Advice
  Industrial Hygienist Training Industrial Hygienist Directory Ozone Kills Mold  Mold Fogging Machine  DIY Mold
 
 Mold Consultant  Household Mold Removal  Tim-Bor Workplace Mold  Business Mold 
Building Decontamination 
 Company Mold  Air Con Mold  Prevent Mold Indoor Pollution Phoenix Mold Inspection 
Do It Yourself Mold Removal 

 What Is Mold?PollutionBusters  Lead Test Kits Mold Inspector Directory  Mold Victim
 Mold Fogger  
Mold Test Dallas Texas Mold Inspection Dallas Texas  Houston Toxic Mold Testing House
Mold Testing Texas  Mold Attorney  Mold Inspection  Mold Marines  Mold Victim Rights 
Dust Mites  Ozone Odor Remover
  Hurricane Mold Remediation Victorville Mold Inspection Palm Springs Mold Inspection
Santa Barbara Mold Inspection
  Mold Advice Hotline Building Maintenance Training  DIY Mold Removal  
 

Use high ozone blasting to kill mold, viruses, bacteria, and odors .

Traducción española por Inspector del Molde Website   Site Web de Inspetor de Molde de Tradução Português
La Traduction française pour l'Inspecteur de Moisissure le Site Internet  Besuchen Sie deutsche Übersetzung des Form-Inspektors Website
Посетите российский перевод Инспектора Почвы вебсайт

Copyright 2014 Environmental Hygienists Association   All Rights Reserved  Last Updated: Nov. 28, 2014
For mold inspection, mold remediation, and mold prevention for your real estate property anywhere in the world, please contact
mold consultants Phillip Fry and Divine Fry  email phil@moldinspector.com or call Phillip Toll-Free 1-866-300-1616 or cell phone 1-480-310-7970